Chapter 1 Citations

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Mice who eat within an eight-to twelve-hour window have been shown to live longer. See Mitchell SJ, Bernier M, Mattison JA, Aon MA, Kaiser TA, Anson RM, Ikeno Y, Anderson RM, Ingram DK, de Cabo R. Daily Fasting Improves Health and Survival in Male Mice Independent of Diet Composition and Calories. Cell Metab. 2019 Jan 8;29(1):221-228.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.08.011. Epub 2018 Sep 6. PMID: 30197301; PMCID: PMC6326845.

Those fed once a day are less likely to suffer from age-related conditions. See Bray, E.E., Zheng, Z., Tolbert, M.K. et al. Once-daily feeding is associated with better health in companion dogs: results from the Dog Aging Project. GeroScience 44, 1779–1790 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-022-00575-7

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Effective at relieving inflammatory bowel disease in humans. See Langmead L, Rampton DS. Review article: complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Feb 1;23(3):341-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02761.x. PMID: 16422993.

Improves stool consistency, and prevents stomach ulcers. See Rezaei M, Dadgar Z, Noori-Zadeh A, Mesbah-Namin SA, Pakzad I, Davodian E. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Mar-Apr;5(2):105-12. PMID: 25949951; PMCID: PMC4418059.

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Actinidin-rich Kiwi. See Kaur L, Boland M. Influence of kiwifruit on protein digestion. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2013;68:149-67. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394294-4.00008-0. PMID: 23394986.

When spinach is exposed to heat. See Gibson RS, Perlas L, Hotz C. Improving the bioavailability of nutrients in plant foods at the household level. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 May;65(2):160-8. doi: 10.1079/pns2006489. PMID: 16672077.

Cooking releases the antioxidant ergothioneine, which helps protect against free radical damage. See Rodriguez Estrada, A.E., Lee, HJ., Beelman, R.B. et al. Enhancement of the antioxidants ergothioneine and selenium in Pleurotus eryngii var. eryngii basidiomata through cultural practices. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25, 1597–1607 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-009-0049-8

Baking mushrooms for 10 minutes at 200°F has also been shown to preserve the most flavonoids. See Yao F, Gao H, Yin CM, Shi DF, Fan XZ. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on the Bioactive Components, Color, Texture, Microstructure, and Volatiles of Shiitake Mushrooms. Foods. 2023 Jun 30;12(13):2573. doi: 10.3390/foods12132573. PMID: 37444310; PMCID: PMC10340526.

Cooking increases the amount of bioavailable lycopene by 50 percent, which can help prevent heart disease and cancer. See Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 8;50(10):3010-4. doi: 10.1021/jf0115589. PMID: 11982434.

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Adding bits of yellow, orange, and green leafy vegetables just three times a week to their bowls. See Raghavan M, Knapp DW, Bonney PL, Dawson MH, Glickman LT. Evaluation of the effect of dietary vegetable consumption on reducing risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Jul 1;227(1):94-100. doi: 10.2460/javma.2005.227.94. PMID: 16013542.

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Pets with sensitive GI tracts who are fed diets higher in fiber have less gut inflammation. See Fritsch DA, Jackson MI, Wernimont SM, Feld GK, MacLeay JM, Brejda JJ, Cochrane CY, Gross KL. Microbiome function underpins the efficacy of a fiber-supplemented dietary intervention in dogs with chronic large bowel diarrhea. BMC Vet Res. 2022 Jun 24;18(1):245. doi: 10.1186/s12917-022-03315-3. PMID: 35751094; PMCID: PMC9233311.

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Fusobacterium species, whose bacteria are bolstered by feeding fresh, meat-based diets. See Schmidt M, Unterer S, Suchodolski JS, Honneffer JB, Guard BC, Lidbury JA, Steiner JM, Fritz J, Kölle P. The fecal microbiome and metabolome differs between dogs fed Bones and Raw Food (BARF) diets and dogs fed commercial diets. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 15;13(8):e0201279. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201279. PMID: 30110340; PMCID: PMC6093636.

Your animal’s gut may never bounce back to normal. See Pilla R, Gaschen FP, Barr JW, Olson E, Honneffer J, Guard BC, Blake AB, Villanueva D, Khattab MR, AlShawaqfeh MK, Lidbury JA, Steiner JM, Suchodolski JS. Effects of metronidazole on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Sep;34(5):1853-1866. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15871. Epub 2020 Aug 28. PMID: 32856349; PMCID: PMC7517498.

Dogs fed a home-cooked diet have improved levels of Fusobacteria in the gut. See Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta, Carlo Pinna, Chi-Hsuan Sung, Francesca Borrelli De Andreis, Jan S. Suchodolski, Rachel Pilla, Costanza Delsante, Federica Sportelli, Ludovica Maria Eugenia Mammi, Marco Pietra, and Giacomo Biagi. 2023. “Fecal Microbiota, Bile Acids, Sterols, and Fatty Acids in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy Fed a Home-Cooked Diet Supplemented with Coconut Oil” Animals 13, no. 3: 502. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030502

A raw diet—as opposed to one composed of mostly heat-processed foods—promotes a more balanced and diverse community of gut bacteria and healthier gut functions. See Sandri M, Dal Monego S, Conte G, Sgorlon S, Stefanon B. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs. BMC Vet Res. 2017 Feb 28;13(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-0981-z. PMID: 28245817; PMCID: PMC5331737.

Dogs who are regularly fed nonprocessed meats, organs, fish, eggs, raw bones, vegetables, and berries, are 22 percent less likely. See Vuori KA, Hemida M, Moore R, Salin S, Rosendahl S, Anturaniemi J, Hielm-Björkman A. The effect of puppyhood and adolescent diet on the incidence of chronic enteropathy in dogs later in life. Sci Rep. 2023 Feb 9;13(1):1830. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-27866-z. PMID: 36759678; PMCID: PMC9911636.

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